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Ohio

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This page is a gem.


๐Ÿšซโ˜ธโ˜ž๏ธŽโ˜œ๏ธŽโšซ ๐Ÿ›ณ๐Ÿšซ โ˜ผ๏ธŽ โ˜น๏ธŽโœ‹๏ธŽโ˜ž๏ธŽโ˜œ๏ธŽโŠ–๐Ÿ›ณโ˜ธ๐Ÿšซ โœงโ“˜โš๏ธŽ๐Ÿ•†๏ธŽโ˜ผ๏ธŽ ๐ŸŽโšซ๐Ÿ›ณ

skibidi

"Say the line, Ohiojak"
goofy ahh ohio wojack
NAHHHH BRUH THIS PAGE IS OHIO ๐Ÿ’€



Ohio is some dumb place in the middle of nowhere. Whenever anything weird happens you can bet its from Ohio. It's where all dem incomprehensible wojacks be from on god cuh fr.

>BRUUUUUUUUUUUUHHHHHHHH FR ohio niggas be goofy af ๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€

>Only in Ohio ๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ˜ญ

>tf cobson doing?? no one asked ๐Ÿ˜‚ you niggas be cap'n.. caught in 4k ๐Ÿ’€

>skibi toilet kai cenat ohio gyatt rizzer ong ong frfr Michigan won! <--what is blud waffling about ๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ˜ญ Ohio national anthem

History

๐Ÿ’€Bruh dat blud ๐Ÿคก fr thinks ๐Ÿค“ we don't know ๐Ÿ—ฟ that Ohio ๐Ÿ’€ appeared in 2022 ๐Ÿ‘ด when I first see ๐Ÿฅถ it on TikTok ๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€๐Ÿ’€

A fossil which dated between 11,727 and 11,424 B.C. indicated that Paleo-Indians hunted large animals, including Jefferson's ground sloth, using stone tools.[2] Later ancestors of Native Americans were known as the Archaic peoples. Sophisticated successive cultures such as the Adena, Hopewell and Fort Ancient, built monumental earthworks such as massive monuments, some of which have survived to the present. The Late Archaic period featured the development of focal subsistence economies and regionalization of cultures. Regional cultures in Ohio include the Maple Creek Culture of Southwestern Ohio, the Glacial Kame culture of western Ohio (especially northwestern Ohio), and the Red Ochre and Old Copper cultures across much of northern Ohio. Flint Ridge, located in present-day Licking County, provided flint, an extremely important raw material and trade good. Objects made from Flint Ridge flint have been found as far east as the Atlantic coast, as far west as Kansas City, and as far south as Louisiana, demonstrating the wide network of prehistoric trading cultures.[citation needed] About 800 BC, Late Archaic cultures were supplanted by the Adena culture. The Adenas were mound builders. Many of their thousands of mounds in Ohio have survived. Following the Adena culture was the Hopewell culture (c. 100 to c. 400 C.E.), which also built sophisticated mounds and earthworks, some of which survive at Hopewell and Newark Earthworks. They used their constructions as astronomical observatories and places of ritual celebration. The Fort Ancient culture also built mounds, including some effigy mounds. Researchers first considered the Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio to be an Adena mound. It is the largest effigy mound in the United States and one of Ohio's best-known landmarks. Scholars believe it may have been a more recent work of Fort Ancient people.[citation needed] In Southern Ohio alone, archaeologists have pinpointed 10000 mounds used as burial sites and have excavated another 1000 earth-walled enclosures, including one enormous fortification with a circumference of about 3.5 miles, enclosing about 100 acres. We now know from a great variety of items found in the mound tombs - large ceremonial blades chipped from obsidian rock formations in Yellowstone National Park; embossed breast-plates, ornaments and weapons fashioned from copper nuggets from the Great Lakes region; decorative objects cut from sheets of mica from the southern Appalachians; conch shells from the Atlantic seaboard; and ornaments made from shark and alligator teeth and shells from the Gulf of Mexico - that the Mound Builders participated in a vast trading network that linked together hundreds of Native Americans across the continent.[3] It has also been found that Hopewell era settlements were cities by population density alone, with thousands of residents at their peak. After the Hopewell collapsed, though, there was little to nothing left but small, unaffiliated farming villages until after 900 AD, when new cultures slowly began to emerge. Sometime, presumably between the years 1100 and 1300 AD, Iroquoian people's began to aggressively expand their influence, conquering into Ohio from the northeast and displacing many of the preexisting cultures in the Great Lakes Region. When modern Europeans began to arrive in North America, they traded with numerous Native American (also known as American Indian) tribes for furs in exchange for goods. In the year 1600 AD, Ohio was divided between several native tribes who were part of three cultures- Iroquoians, Algonquians and Siouans. The tribes we know by name were the Erie in the extreme Northeast corner, the Whittlesey culture a culturally unidentifiable melting pot of Algonquian, Siouan and Iroquoian aspects along the lake shore from Geauga County to Sandusky,[4] the Mascouten north of the Maumee River, the Miami in the west and the Mosopelea in the southeast. Fort Ancients held the south and another group called the Monongahela Culture extended slightly into eastern Ohio, just south of the Erie, from across the Ohio River. But, a combination of war and disease quickly decimated the local people's before much interaction could take place and all tribes except the Miami were either permanently driven away, or destroyed. When the Iroquois Confederacy depleted the beaver and other game in its territory in the New York region, they launched a war known as the Beaver Wars, destroying or scattering the contemporary inhabitants of the region. During the Beaver Wars in the 1650s, the Iroquois nearly destroyed the Erie along the shore of Lake Erie. Overall, they managed to expand their territory through the North shore of Lakes Ontario and Erie, throughout Ohio, Indiana and southern Michigan and south from their original homeland in New York, all the way to the James River in Virginia when the war seems to have officially ended in 1701, but the French began aiding other native peoples who had fled west and took nearly all of that land for themselves, naming it the Illinois Colony. During the war, the Sauk and Meskwaki tribes, who were Algonquian peoples displaced from the Ottawa River valley in Canada, migrated into Ohio and Michigan before the Iroquois quickly drove them all the way to Minnesota. After the war, Ohio mainly belonged to only Iroquoians and Algonquians- the Mingo/ Seneca, the Shawnee, the Lenape/ Delaware, the Miami, the Ottawa/ Mississauga/ Chippewa (not to be confused with the Ottawa who were still a part of the Anishinaabe of Lake Superior, or the Algonquians of the Ottawa River), the Wyandot and the Guyandotte/ Little Mingo. The Shawnee migrated from the southeast and were sometimes known as the Savannah, the Lenape had relocated from New Jersey and the Ottawa and Wyandot seem to have been formed from Algonquian, Huron and Anishinaabe captured by the Iroquois during the war, who broke free of their control. The Guyandotte may have been related to a small Iroquoian tribe called the Petun, which had also been destroyed in the war. From the time of the Hopewells until sometime in the 14th century, the Native peoples of the Eastern United States had seemingly domesticated and traded several food crops amongst themselves in what is referred to as the Eastern Agricultural Complex, but once corn arrived and for reasons unknown, the peoples of the east allowed several of these domesticated and/ or semi-domesticated species to go extinct, and, to our knowledge, never ate even the wild versions of these plants ever again. This, despite Quinoa still being farmed in South America and wild buckwheat still being commonly harvested on the west coast. The main plants were beans, squash and pumpkin, quinoa, little barley grass, buckwheat and sunflower, domesticated from plants available in the Ohio River Valley, while some others, like White Alder Grass and maygrass originated from Missouri and the Deep South, respectively. Some of the wild varieties of these plants were very different, such as wild kidney bean and a rare variant of cucurbita pepo, ozarkana, which grows at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.[5] Squash and Pumpkins may be the oldest domesticated crop, having been grown by the Indian Knoll People of western Kentucky, who formed a complex society as far back as 8000 years ago.

In 1608, French explorer and founder of Quebec City Samuel Champlain sided with the Ottawa River Algonquian, Huron and surviving Saint Lawrence Iroquoian peoples living along the St. Lawrence River against the Iroquois Confederacy ("Five Nations") living in what is now upper and western New York state in what was known as the Ticonderoga War. The result was a lasting enmity by the Iroquois Confederacy towards the French, which caused them to side with the Dutch fur traders coming up the Hudson River in about 1626.[8] But, as the Dutch feared giving the Iroquois firearms, they later found new allies- presumably the English, 30 years before the English had formally claimed Iroquois lands.

Engraving based on a drawing by Champlain of his 1609 voyage, depicting a battle between Iroquois and Algonquian tribes near Lake Champlain With these more sophisticated weapons, the Five Nations nearly exterminated [citation needed] the Huron and all of the other Native Americans living immediately to their west in the Ohio country during the Beaver Wars, beginning in 1632. The Five Nations' use of modern weapons caused the wars to become deadlier. Historians consider the Beaver Wars to have been one of the bloodiest conflicts in the history of North America. About 1664, the Five Nations officially became trading partners with the British, who conquered New Netherland (renamed New York) from the Dutch. The Five Nations enlarged their territory by right of conquest. The number of tribes paying tribute to them realigned the tribal map of eastern North America. Several large confederacies were destroyed or relocated, including the Huron, Neutral, Erie, Susquehannock, Miami, Weskerini Algonquian, Kichesipirini Algonquian, Mascouten, Fox, Sauk, Petun, Manahoac and Saponi-Tutelo. The Five Nations pushed several eastern tribes to and even across the Mississippi River, as well as south, into the Carolinas. After the Five Nations' warriors were defeated between 1670 and 1701, the French and their allies took control, but the French-Indian Wars between England, France and all their remaining native allies, began just a few years later. Several small wars between the two countries in Europe spilled over into the Americas and were used as an excuse to try to seize more territory. By the late 1750s, all of the former Illinois Colony had been conquered and renamed the Ohio Country.

Dunmore's War edit After the French-Indian Wars, one final war occurred immediately before the Revolutionary War. Dunmore's War was fought between the English and Shawnee roughly between Yellow Creek in Columbiana County and the West Virginia- Kentucky border. The English locals claimed that the Shawnee had been rustling cattle, but it was later concluded that they had lied to facilitate a war. Of the two Shawnee chiefs who fought in the war, Chief Logan's family were all hunted down and assassinated and Chief Cornstalk was said to have cursed the land where his village had once stood.[11] Among the Mingo Seneca, the brother of Chief Cornplanter, a high ranking False Face (Iroquois Shaman) reworked the old Iroquois religion into the Longhouse Church while in Ohio. This version of Iroquois religion took on various Christian elements (belief in hell, downgrading of all deities aside the Creator to something akin to angels/ demons and regular Church meetings) while keeping alive most of the old holidays and ceremonies and is still practiced by most members of the Iroquois Confederacy today.

New France edit

A map of the original Ohio Country In the 17th century, the French were the first modern Europeans to explore what became known as Ohio Country.[13] In 1663, it became part of New France, a royal province of French Empire, and northeastern Ohio was further explored by Robert La Salle in 1669.[14] During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region, linked to their settlements in present-day Canada and what they called the Illinois Country along the Mississippi River. Fort Miami on the site of present-day St. Joseph, Michigan was constructed in 1680 by New France Governor-General Louis de Buade de Frontenac.[15] They built Fort Sandoskรฉ by 1750 (and perhaps a fortified trading post at Junundat in 1754).[15] By the 1730s, population pressure from expanding European colonies on the Atlantic coast compelled several groups of Native Americans to relocate to the Ohio Country. From the east, the Delaware and Shawnee arrived, and Wyandot and Ottawa from the north. The Miami lived in what is now western Ohio. The Mingo formed out of Iroquois who migrated west into the Ohio lands, as well as some refugee remnants of other tribes. Christopher Gist was one of the first English-speaking explorers to travel through and write about the Ohio Country in 1749. When British traders such as George Croghan started to do business in the Ohio Country, the French and their northern Indian allies drove them out. In 1752 the French raided the Miami Indian town of Pickawillany (modern Piqua, Ohio). The French began military occupation of the Ohio Valley in 1753. French and Indian War edit By the mid-18th century, British traders were rivaling French traders in the area.[16] They had generally coerced many former Dutch residents of the now conquered New Netherland colony to relocate into eastern Ohio in their name. They had occupied a trading post called Loramie's Fort, which the French attacked from Canada in 1752, renaming it for a Frenchman named Loramie and establishing a trading post there. In the early 1750s George Washington was sent to the Ohio Country by the Ohio Company to survey, and the fight for control of the territory would spark the French and Indian War. It was in the Ohio Country where George Washington lost the Battle of Fort Necessity to Louis Coulon de Villiers in 1754, and the subsequent Battle of the Monongahela to Charles Michel de Langlade and Jean-Daniel Dumas to retake the country 1755. The Treaty of Paris ceded the country to Great Britain in 1763. During this period the country was routinely engaged in turmoil, with massacres and battles occurring among the tribes. British Empire edit Prior to the American Revolution, Britain thinly exercised sovereignty over Ohio Country by lackadaisical garrisoning of the French forts.[17] Just beyond Ohio Country was the great Miami capital of Kekionga which became the center of British trade and influence in Ohio Country and throughout the future Northwest Territory. By the Royal Proclamation of 1763, British lands west of Appalachia were forbidden to settlement by colonists. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 explicitly reserved lands north and west of the Ohio as Indian lands. British military occupation in the region contributed to the outbreak of Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763. Ohio Indians participated in that war until an armed expedition in Ohio led by Colonel Henry Bouquet brought about a truce. Another colonial military expedition into the Ohio Country in 1774 brought Lord Dunmore's War to a conclusion. Lord Dunmore constructed Fort Gower on the Hocking River in 1774. In 1774, Britain passed the Quebec Act that formally annexed Ohio and other western lands to the Province of Quebec in order to provide a civil government and to centralize British administration of the Montreal-based fur trade. The prohibition of settlement west of the Appalachians remained, contributing to the American Revolution.[15] American Revolution edit As a result of the exploits of George Rogers Clark in 1778, Ohio Country (including the territory of the future state of Ohio) as well as eastern Illinois Country, became Illinois County, Virginia by claim of conquest under the Virginia Colony charter. The county was dissolved in 1782 and ceded to the United States.

Monument commemorating the Moravian Christian Indian Martyrs who were massacred in 1782 at the mission settlement of Gnadenhutten.[18] Early in the American Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress signed the Treaty of Fort Pitt with the Lenape people, which should have guaranteed that all Native lands of Ohio, excepting the Western Reserve, would become a state explicitly under control of the Native peoples who inhabited it in return for their supporting the patriot cause, however a breakdown in communication led to the Ohio Natives' not properly responding and the Continental Congress's assumption that they wanted no part in the union, but to maintain their own sovereignty, therefore the treaty was never fulfilled and many of Ohio's Native peoples were left in confusion as to who to support during the war, leading to their people's being regularly victimized by both sides. [2] For example, the Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and the Delaware leader Buckongahelas sided with the British. Cornstalk (Shawnee) and White Eyes (Delaware) sought to remain friendly with the rebellious colonists. There was major fighting in 1782.[19] American colonial frontiersmen often did not differentiate between friendly and hostile Indians, however. Cornstalk was killed by American militiamen, and White Eyes may have been. One of the most tragic incidents of the warโ€”the killing of 96 Christian Munsee and Christian Mahicans by U.S. militiamen from Pennsylvania on March 8, 1782, at the Moravian Christian missionary village of Gnadenhutten, known as the Gnadenhutten massacreโ€”took place in northeast Ohio.[20][21] In May of that year, George Washington's close friend William Crawford was captured while leading an expedition against Lenape at Upper Sandusky, Ohio. Though Crawford was not at Gnadenhutten, in revenge, he was tortured for hours then burned at the stake. With the American victory in the Revolutionary War, the British ceded Ohio and its territory in the West as far as the Mississippi River to the new nation. Between 1784 and 1789, the states of Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut ceded their earlier land claims in Ohio Country to Congress, but Virginia and Connecticut maintained reserves.[22] These areas were known as the Virginia Military District and Connecticut Western Reserve.[23][24]

Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio" edit Rufus Putnam served in important capacities in both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States.[25]

This image depicts the landing of General Rufus Putnam and the first settlers at Marietta, Ohio in 1788.

Rufus Putnam by James Sharples Jr. In 1776, the Continental Army had encircled the British Army in Boston, but could not dislodge it, and a long stalemate ensued. Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which were put in place under cover of darkness, along with cannon. This then drove the British from Boston. George Washington was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer. After the war, Putnam and Manasseh Cutler were instrumental in creating the Northwest Ordinance, which opened up the Northwest Territory for settlement. This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans. It was also at Putnam's recommendation that the land would be surveyed and laid out in townships of six miles square. Putnam organized and led the first group of veterans to the territory. They settled at Marietta, Ohio, where they built a large fort called Campus Martius.[26][27][28]

Campus Martius ("Field of Mars" in Latin) was named after the part of Rome of the same name. This site, including the Rufus Putnam House, is now part of the Campus Martius Museum in Marietta, Ohio.[29] Putnam and Cutler insisted that the Northwest Territory would be free territory - no slavery. They were both from Puritan New England, and the Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong. The Northwest Territory doubled the size of the United States, and establishing it as free of slavery proved to be of tremendous importance in the following decades. It encompassed what became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota. Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's main competitor, Lincoln would not have been elected president. The Civil War would not have been fought. And, even if eventually there had been a civil war, the North would probably have lost.[30][31] Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, and similarly, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now Marietta College) in Ohio. In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court. In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio.[32][33][34] Northwest Territory edit Starting even before the war, and accelerating with the establishment of Fort Henry across the Ohio River in West Virginia, numerous settlers encroached on Indian lands west of the Ohio River in a broad arc from west of Fort Henry as far upriver as where Fort Steuben (today Steubenville) was later established. That there was continuous occupation of such lands is certain, though the location and continuity of any particular settlement, at least a few of which were referred to loosely as "towns" is very much in doubt. Most prominent among these were a series of squatters settlements with various names circa 1774 to 1795 in the area of what is today Martin's Ferry, directly across river from Fort Henry. European settlement of Ohio may fairly be said to have been in progression before establishment of the Northwest Territory and the first generally recognized town of Marietta.[35]

This monument to the pioneers of Ohio is in Muskingum Park, Front St., Marietta, Ohio. In 1787, the United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of that year. Ebenezer Sproat became a shareholder of the Ohio Company of Associates, and was engaged as a surveyor with the company.[36][37] On April 7, 1788, Ebenezer Sproat and a group of American pioneers to the Northwest Territory, led by Rufus Putnam, arrived at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers to establish Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.[38][39][40] Marietta was founded by New Englanders.[41] It was the first of what would become a prolific number of New England settlements in what was then the Northwest Territory.[42] These New Englanders or "Yankees" as they were called, were descended from the Puritan English colonists who had settled New England in the 1600s and were members of the Congregationalist church. Correspondingly, the first church in Marietta was a Congregationalist church which was constructed 1786.[42] Colonel Sproat, was a notable member of the pioneer settlement of Marietta. He greatly impressed the local Indians, who in admiration dubbed him "Hetuck", meaning "eye of the buck deer" "Big Buckeye".[43][44][45] Historians believe this is how Ohio came to be known as the Buckeye State and its residents as Buckeyes.[46] The Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") managed settlement of land in the southwestern section. The Connecticut Land Company administered settlement in the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. A heavy flood of migrants came from New York and especially New England, where there had been a growing hunger for land as population increased before the Revolutionary War. Most traveled to Ohio by wagon and stagecoach, following former Indian paths such as the Northern Trace. Many also traveled part of the way by barges on the Mohawk River across New York state. Farmers who settled in western New York after the war sometimes moved on to one or more locations in Ohio in their lifetimes, as new lands kept opening to the west. American settlement of the Northwest Territory was resisted by Native Americans in the Northwest Indian War. Two years after the Revolution, the US had begun offering people subsidies to move into the Ohio and Tennessee River Valleys to establish farms and, in an attempt to facilitate this, tried to force the Natives to sign a treaty in 1785 [47] that would strip all of Ohio from them, excepting the Northwestern corner. Virtually all Native people's in the threatened territories joined forces and fought back. In Ohio, the Miami, Wyandot, Shawnee, Lenape, Seneca, Ottawa, Wabash, Illinois, Hochunk, Sauk and Fox nations joined under a Miami warrior who had been asked to fight as their War Chief, Little Turtle. They were eventually conquered by General Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. They ceded much of present-day Ohio to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville, concluded in 1795, which renegotiated to take even more land than the prior treaty. Oddly, though, most of the Natives stayed put, despite a handful of eviction attempts by the US military, leading to many communities establishing their own local boundaries between white and Native land, and later the formation of a few reservations in the western part of the state for the Shawnee, Lenape, Ottawa and Wyandot. The Lenape were pretty much all experimentally removed to Missouri around 1809, but when this went poorly, the government deigned not to remove any others, for the time being, other than most of the Shawnee over the Shawnee War. This was later undone after the Trail of Tears, which led the government into a scramble to convince all the remaining Natives in Ohio to relocate west peacefully. The last known full blood Wyandot to live in Ohio was Bill Moose (1836โ€“1937). He gave a list of 12 individuals/families who remained behind removal. Draper Manuscripts also show that a few Shawnee, Mingo (mainly Seneca-Cayuga), and Lenape remained behind to. Also Mohawk and Brotherton (Narragansett) families as well. Starting in the early 19th century, after the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase, Congress began investing heavily in trying to convince Natives in the East to relocate west of the Mississippi. The Lenape were a test, and were removed in 1809, but when they complained that the natives of that region were being aggressive towards them and there wasn't enough to hunt and forage, the project was scrapped for several more decades.[48] The U.S. Congress prohibited slavery in the territory. (Once the population grew and the territory achieved statehood, the citizens could have legalized slavery, but chose not to do so.) The states of the Midwest would be known as Free States, in contrast to those states south of the Ohio River. Migrants to the latter came chiefly from Virginia and other slave-holding states, and brought their culture and slaves with them. As Northeastern states abolished slavery in the coming two generations, the free states would be known as Northern States. The Northwest Territory originally included areas previously called Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was carved out, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of Michigan's lower peninsula and a sliver of land in southeastern Indiana along Ohio's western border called "The Gore". Statehood edit

Land patent. Patentee Name: Henry Hanford. Logan Co., Ohio, 1834 With Ohio's population reaching 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was the territory would have in excess of the required 60,000 residents by the time it became a state. Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1802 that outlined the process for Ohio to seek statehood. The residents convened a constitutional convention. They used numerous provisions from other states and rejected slavery. On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed the act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. Congress did not pass a specific resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress' declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, when Louisiana was admitted as the 18th state. Shawnee War and War of 1812 edit See also: Ohio in the War of 1812

1815 map of Ohio Starting around 1809, the Shawnee began to feel restless again. Under Chief Tecumseh, the Shawnee War officially began in Ohio in 1811. When the war of 1812 began, the English decided to attack from Canada into Ohio and merge their forces with the Shawnee. This continued until Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813. While most of the Shawnee fought, many stayed out of the conflict- particularly in the groups referred to as the Piqua and Makojay, due to the influence of a Chief Black Hoof.[49] As a result, Piqua and Makojay both remained in Ohio after the rest were removed to the Missouri-Arkansas-Texas area. The Piqua would later be removed during the Indian Removals following the Trail of Tears, however the Makojay vanished into thin air after Blackhoof's death.[50] In 1812, the United Kingdom and the United States got into a dispute because the UK kept invading American ships, claiming random people to be English draft dodgers and taking them away to fight in the British Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. In addition, British officials operating from Canada harbored and armed the Native Indians into attacking American settlers mainly in an effort to establish a pro-British Indian barrier state in U.S. territory south of the Great Lakes region. After several requests to stop these activities went unanswered, the US invaded Canada, laying siege to the cities of Montreal and Quebec, prompting a British military response Ohio played a key role in the War of 1812, as it was on the front line in the Western theater and the scene of several notable battles both on land and in Lake Erie. On September 10, 1813, the Battle of Lake Erie, one of the major battles, took place in Lake Erie near Put-in-Bay, Ohio. The British eventually surrendered to Oliver Hazard Perry. The outcome of the Shawnee War also caused the Red Stick War in Alabama in 1813. Tecumseh had approached several tribes for help beforehand, but all had ignored his pleas, despite support. The Red Sticks, a faction of Shawnee supporters among the Muscogee, or Creek Confederacy, broke loose and began attacking military installations in retaliation to his death. Other Muscogee Creeks who didn't support war took care of the problem themselves before it got out of hand.[51] Indian Removals edit Ultimately, after the United States government used the Indian Removal Act of 1830 to force countless Native American tribes on the Trail of Tears, where all the southern states except for Florida were successfully emptied of Native peoples, the US government panicked because a majority of tribes did not want to be forced out of their own lands. Fearing further wars between Native tribes and American settlers, they pushed all remaining Native tribes in the East to migrate west against their own will, including all remaining tribes in Ohio. It is said that Ohio may actually have been a part of the Trail of Tears, according to The Other Trail of Tears: The Removal of the Ohio Indians by Mary Stockwell.[52][53] In 1838, the United States sent 7,000 soldiers to remove 16,000 Cherokee by force. Whites looted their homes. The largest Trail of Tears began, eventually taking 4,000 Indian lives. The Removal Act opened 25 million acres to white settlement and slavery. Upper Sandusky's traditionalist Wyandot go to Washington, D.C. to try to promote a separate removal agreement, but they are rejected. They return home, and their chief pulls a knife at a tribal council and lands in jail.[54] The final tribe to leave were the Wyandot in 1843.[55]

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Illinois

Shit nobody cares about